The hymen is the membrane that separates the vagina from the vulva and is ruptured during the first sexual intercourse. The hymen is more or less elastic depending on the woman. Some women are born without a hymen, while in others it is ruptured by riding horses, cycling, doing gymnastics, or even inserting a tampon. On the other hand, some women give birth with a hymen that is still almost intact. The hymen is therefore a very fragile proof of female virginity.
Hymenoplasty is not always performed in anticipation of marriage. It can happen that after a rape, women resort to this operation to erase the trauma and regain their bodily integrity. Other women also want hymen reconstruction as a way to get closure after a relationship has ended.